Corea del Sur

República de Corea



According to Act No. 8272, on the Flag of the Republic of Korea, the national flag of the Republic of Korea (hereinafter referred to as the «national flag») is called «Taegeukgi». As mentioned in Article 7 of said Act:

The national flag is composed of one taegeuk circle (or Yin and Yang) at the center and four trigrams (or gwae) called «gun,» «gon,» «gam,» and «ri» respectively, one at each corner. The field of the national flag shall be in white; the upper and lower parts of the taegeuk circle shall be in red and in blue, respectively; and the trigrams shall be in black.

The ratio of the width of the national flag to its length shall be three to two, provided that the foregoing shall not apply to occasions specified by Presidential Decree, such as for celebration of special events. Every finial of the national flag shall be in the globular shape of a bud of the rose of Sharon with five calyces at the bottom, which is of a golden color. Every pole bearing the national flag shall be made of a solid material, of which color shall be white, silver white, yellowish green, or similar.


According to the official webpage of the Korean Ministry of the Interior and Safety, the national emblem of Korea is called Gukga Munjang or Gukjang. The design is based on the motifs of the Taegeukgi flag and the Mugunghwa flower, which are national symbols. The taegeuk motif is surrounded by five mugunghwa petals, and the entire design is encircled by a ribbon with the letters ‘대한민국 (Republic of Korea).’

Normativa de uso

Based on the Regulations on the National Emblem formulated on December 10, 1963, the national emblem is used as a state symbol on major documents sent to foreign institutions, on medals and other decorations, Presidential commendations, and signage on diplomatic missions abroad.
The emblem is designed in the form of a badge or a brass die. If necessary, the size can be scaled up or down depending on the usage.

Usage (Article 3, Regulations on the National Emblem)

  1. Official documents sent abroad, international organizations or foreign institutions stationed in Korea
  2. Certificates of appointment for 1st-grade or higher grade government officials
  3. Medals, certificates of decoration, and Presidential commendations
  4. Public official ID cards
  5. Graduation certificates or diplomas issued by national or public universities
  6. Vessels or aircraft owned by the government
  7. Diplomatic missions overseas
  8. Currency
  9. Documents, facilities, or goods on which the use of the national emblem is deemed necessary by the head of a ministry or agency


According to the official webpage of the Korean Ministry of the Interior and Safety, Aegukga is the national anthem. Generically, aegukga refers to any song that expresses love for one’s country. However, the term has become synonymous with Korea’s national anthem.

The lyrics of Korea’s national anthem were first written sometime around 1907 with the intention of inspiring love and allegiance to the country, as well as a sense of independence at a time when the country was under foreign aggression. Following adaptation by several composers, the lyrics gradually took the form we know today.

Initially, the Aegukga was sung to the tune of the Scottish folk song, “Auld Lang Syne.” While studying abroad, Korean composer Ahn Eak-tai felt that this foreign melody was unfit for Korea’s national anthem. In 1935, he composed the Symphonic Fantasy Korea, the finale of which became the current melody for the national anthem. Even though the Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea adopted this tune as their national anthem, it was only known abroad. In Korea, the lyrics continued to be sung to the Scottish folk song until the Korean government was established in 1948 following the nation’s independence from Japan. At that time, the current version of Aegukga was sung during official government functions, and gradually, with its inclusion in all student textbooks, it gained popular acceptance. Afterwards, the song was widely disseminated abroad and finally became established as the national anthem of Korea.

Letra y música.


동해 물과 백두산이 마르고 닳도록
하느님이 보우하사 우리나라 만세.
무궁화 삼천리 화려 강산
대한 사람, 대한으로 길이 보전하세.

남산 위에 저 소나무, 철갑을 두른 듯
바람 서리 불변함은 우리 기상일세.
무궁화 삼천리 화려 강산
대한 사람, 대한으로 길이 보전하세.

가을 하늘 공활한데 높고 구름 없이
밝은 달은 우리 가슴 일편단심일세.
무궁화 삼천리 화려 강산
대한 사람, 대한으로 길이 보전하세.

이 기상과 이 맘으로 충성을 다하여
괴로우나 즐거우나 나라 사랑하세.
무궁화 삼천리 화려 강산
대한 사람, 대한으로 길이 보전하세.

La versión breve del himno de Corea del Sur (la primera estrofa) puede escucharse aquí, interpretada por la Orquesta Filarmónica de Seúl, acompañada del Coro de Seúl.


According to the official webpage of the Korean Ministry of the Interior and Safety, the government adopted the Mugunghwa as the national flower after Korea regained its independence from Japan.

The Mugunghwa is a symbol in the flags of government and national organizations, decorations, and badges.


The Republic of Korea has no act or official regulation regarding any official list for the order of precedence. However, according to the news channel YTN (see source here), the protocol standards for national events is regulated by the government Protocol Manual published by the Ministry of Public Administration and Security. The Manual was last updated on 2021, and its linked in the «Documents» section of this page. The list, as described in the Manual, goes as follows:

  1. President of the Republic of Korea
  2. Speaker of the National Assembly
  3. Chief Justice of the Supreme Court and President of the Constitutional Court
  4. Prime Minister
  5. Chairperson of the National Election Commission
  6. Chair of the Board of Audit and Inspection
  7. Leaders of the parties represented in the National Assembly
    1. Leader of the ruling party
    2. Leaders of the oppositions
  8. Deputy Speakers of the National Assembly (2)
  9. Cabinet ministers (17)
    1. Deputy Prime Ministers (2)
      1. Minister of Economy and Finance (Deputy Prime Minister of Economy ex officio)
      2. Minister of Education (Deputy Prime Minister of Social Affairs ex officio)
    2. Other ministers of the Cabinet (15)
      1. Minister of Foreign Affairs
      2. Minister of Reunification of Korea
      3. Minister of Justice
      4. Minister of National Defense
      5. Minister of Interior and Safety
      6. Minister of Culture, Sports and Tourism
      7. Minister of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs
      8. Minister of Trade, Industry and Energy
      9. Minister of Health and Welfare
      10. Minister of Environment
      11. Minister of Employment and Labor
      12. Minister of Gender Equality and Family
      13. Minister of Land, Infrastructure and Transport
      14. Minister of Oceans and Fisheries
      15. Minister of Small Businesses and Startups
  10. Floor leaders in the National Assembly
    1. Floor leader of the ruling party
    2. Floor leaders of the oppositions
  11. Chairs of the standing committees of the National Assembly (18)
    1. Chair of the House Steering Committee
    2. Chair of the Legislation and Judiciary Committee
    3. Chair of the National Policy Committee
    4. Chair of the National Strategy and Finance Committee
    5. Chair of the Education Committee
    6. Chair of the Science, Technology, Broadcasting and Communications Committee
    7. Chair of the Foreign Affairs and Reunification Committee
    8. Chair of the National Defense Committee
    9. Chair of the Public Administration and Security Committee
    10. Chair of the Culture, Sports and Tourism Committee
    11. Chair of the Agriculture, Food, Rural Affairs, Oceans and Fisheries Committee
    12. Chair of the Trade, Industry, Energy, Small Businesses and Startups Committee
    13. Chair of the Health and Welfare Committee
    14. Chair of the Environment and Labor Committee
    15. Chair of the Land, Infrastructure and Transport Committee
    16. Chair of the Intelligence Committee
    17. Chair of the Gender Equality and Family Committee
    18. Chair of the Special Committee on Budget and Accounts
  12. Justices of the Supreme Court and Justices of the Constitutional Court (8) (each In seniority of tenure)
  13. Chiefs of agencies reporting to the Presidents (5)
    1. Director of the National Intelligence Service
    2. Chief Presidential Secretary
    3. Chair of the National Security Council
    4. Commissioner of the Broadcasting and Telecommunication
    5. Chief of the Presidential Security Service
  14. Prosecutor General
  15. Chief of the National Assembly Secretariat
  16. Chiefs of agencies reporting to the Prime Minister (9)
  17. Chair of the Joint Chiefs of Staff
  18. Chief of Staff of the Armed Forces (3)
    • Chief of Staff of the Army
    • Chief of Staff of the Navy
    • Chief of Staff of the Air Force
  19. Operation commanders (In seniority of tenure)
    1. Deputy Commander of ROK-US Combined Forces Command
    2. Ground Operations Commander
    3. Second Operations Commander
  20. Commander of the Marine Corps
  21. Members of the National Assembly (In seniority of tenure)


Act No. 8272, on the Flag of the Republic of Korea (Jan. 26, 2007). Available here.

Regulations on the National Emblem (Dec. 10, 1963).


Para facilidad de consulta, se anexan los siguientes documentos en pdf:

  • 『2021 정부의전편람』 (2021 Government Manual). An official guide by the Ministry of Public Administration and Security. The Government Manual  contains information on national symbols (Taegeukgi, National Anthem, Mugunghwa, National Emblem, National Seal, etc.), protocol standards and procedures of the government, national celebrations and commemorative events, and operation of cabinet meetings and vice-ministerial meetings. Available here (KOREAN).
  • National Symbols of the Republic of Korea. Uniting People and Elevating National Pride. A booklet by the Korean Ministry of the Interior depicting the national symbols. Available here.